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3 Operating costs

Direct costs

In CHF million   1.1.–30.6.2022   1.1.–30.6.2021
Customer premises equipment and merchandise   451   465
Services purchased   356   354
Costs to obtain a contract   99   111
Costs to fulfill a contract   48   51
Network access costs of swiss subsidiaries   131   155
Network access costs of foreign subsidiaries   187   214
Total direct costs   1,272   1,350

Indirect costs

In CHF million   1.1.–30.6.2022   1.1.–30.6.2021
Salary and social security expenses   1,346   1,291
Other personnel expense   27   36
Total personnel expense   1,373   1,327
         
Information technology cost   130   119
Maintenance expense   143   127
Energy costs   72   61
Advertising and selling expenses   101   83
Call centre services purchased   66   70
Consultancy expenses and freelance workforce   59   60
Administration expense   25   30
Allowances for receivables and contract assets   30   37
Miscellaneous operating expenses   376   279
Total other operating expense   1,002   866
         
Capitalised self-constructed tangible and intangible assets   (237)   (214)
Own work for capitalised contract costs   (32)   (29)
Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment   (3)   (3)
Miscellaneous income   (72)   (31)
Total capitalised self-constructed assets and other income   (344)   (277)
         
Total indirect costs   2,031   1,916

Capitalised self-constructed tangible and intangible assets include personnel costs for the manufacturing of technical installations, the construction of network infrastructure and the development of software for internal use.