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3 Operating costs

Direct costs

In CHF million   1.1.–30.9.2022   1.1.–30.9.2021
Customer premises equipment and merchandise   683   681
Services purchased   526   528
Costs to obtain a contract   156   161
Costs to fulfill a contract   65   78
Network access costs of swiss subsidiaries   236   260
Network access costs of foreign subsidiaries   286   323
Total direct costs   1,952   2,031

Indirect costs

In CHF million   1.1.–30.9.2022   1.1.–30.9.2021
Salary and social security expenses   1,980   1,911
Other personnel expense   43   52
Total personnel expense   2,023   1,963
         
Information technology cost   190   184
Maintenance expense   220   200
Energy costs   106   91
Advertising and selling expenses   140   132
Call centre services purchased   97   104
Consultancy expenses and freelance workforce   87   88
Administration expense   37   43
Allowances for receivables and contract assets   32   54
Miscellaneous operating expenses   497   433
Total other operating expense   1,406   1,329
         
Capitalised self-constructed tangible and intangible assets   (355)   (320)
Own work for capitalised contract costs   (45)   (44)
Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment   (6)   (5)
Miscellaneous income   (91)   (76)
Total capitalised self-constructed assets and other income   (497)   (445)
         
Total indirect costs   2,932   2,847

Capitalised self-constructed tangible and intangible assets include personnel costs for the manufacturing of technical installations, the construction of network infrastructure and the development of software for internal use.